Economy & Energy
Year IX -No 63:
August - September
2007 
ISSN 1518-2932

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Direct Impact of Nuclear Generation on GHE Gases Emissions in Brazil

The bal_eec Program – User’s Manual Contained Carbon, Equivalent and Final Energy

Auctions of New Energy: Vectors of Offer and Demand Crisis or Adjustment 

http://ecen.com

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The bal-eec Program -

User's Manual Contained Carbon,

Equivalent and Final Energy

 Carlos Feu Alvim

feu@ecen.com

Rafael Macêdo

 1. The Program

The bal_eec program is bilingual - Portuguese and English - that builds tables and graphics using data from the consolidated National Energy Balance – BEN 2005, base year 2004. From one equivalence table, data of each energy source and each sector are converted to equivalent energy considering the relative efficiency of the different uses in each sector. The tables are built according to the user’s needs and they correlate the account with the energy sources. The data comprise the 1970 / 2004 period.

Besides the energy (final and equivalent) balance, the present version includes the Carbon Balance that is an important instrument for calculating the GHE gases. More information about the contents and application of the program can be obtained at http://ecen.com.

The program was elaborated in Visual Basic for Excel Application (VBA), produced by Microsoft.

The original program, elaborated by Carlos Feu Alvim, has been extensively used for some years to calculate energy or emissions data and as an ancillary instrument for energy planning. Its results can be coupled with other programs that use them as base for their calculations. The present version is under complete revision with the collaboration of Rafael Macêdo and should be considered as the “beta version” (test) even though it is operational.

Some modifications were introduced with the purpose of improving the performance of the program relative to the previous version. One of the modifications was the inclusion of procedures to deactivate the updating of the results spreadsheets during  the execution of the macros which would be carried out only after their complete execution. Another change was the deactivation of automatic calculations of cells that have formulas during the execution of macros that are now calculated at the end. These changes have substantially increased the performance of this new version.

2. Installing the Program

The bal_ecc program is supplied in a

 CD with auto-reproduction; it is

 sufficient to follow the instructions that

 are self-explanatory. In case the

 computer has the CD auto-reproduction deactivated it is sufficient to execute the CD “install.exe” command.

 

3. Executing the Program

Normally the  installation

generates an  icon in the working

area and in the Start menu of the

programs. The bal_ecc  Program (Balanço Energético, de Energia Equivalente e de Carbono) is opened by clicking on one of the above icons.

It is necessary to activate the macros when the program is used. Depending on the safety configurations of Excel, an opening screen as that shown below will appear when the program is opened, and where one should clock on “Activate Macros” in order to activate them.

 

4. Operation

4.1 Cover

When the program is started an Excel spreadsheet will be opened containing the visible cover. In order to go to the program’s main spreadsheet one should click on “Main” on the top of the cover as shown below. Furthermore, it is also possible to change the language of the program by clicking on “To English” or “Em Português”.

 

4.2 Main Spreadsheet

By clicking on “Main” on top of the program’s cover, the Main spreadsheet of the program is opened. This is the spreadsheet that keeps the BEN/MME structure, and at its upper part are situated the commands to operate it as shown in the figure below.

At the left side of the commands is situated the menu of the program’s actions that is activated when the option “Actions” is marked as shown below. In order to exhibit the list available one should click on the “downward arrow” in the scroll box. For executing an action, one should select it in the list and then click on the “OK” button at the side of the list.

 

 

The actions available are the following ones:

1.       Refresh–Updates the main table according to the selected spreadsheet, the table and the year.

2.       Print BEN –Presents data shown on the main table in a spreadsheet with the proper printing format.

3.       Top – Returns to the top of the main spreadsheet.

4.       Cover – Returns to the cover of the program.

5.       Arrange Data – Calculates data of all years for the selected table and spreadsheet, showing them in the “Data” spreadsheet.

6.       Calculate all years– Calculates data of all years for the selected table and spreadsheet, showing them in the “Years” spreadsheet.

7.       Construct ad hoc table –Show the spreadsheet to construct ad hoc tables.

8.       Arrange Results – Calculates data of all years for the selected table and spreadsheet, showing them in a new archive and in the printing format.

 

  On the right side of the actions menu

 there is the scroll box with the format of

 the main table spreadsheet according to

 the figure shown here. Each spreadsheet

 defines the accounts and the energy

 sources that will be shown in the main

 table. The list contains pre- arranged spreadsheets with the traditional BEN format of the Annual Annex and ad hoc spreadsheets constructed using the “Construct ad hoc table”.

 

 

Then there is the years scroll box, as shown.

In this box are listed all years that are available

besides the “All” option in the last row. When the

main table is updated, the data shown will refer to

the selected year except for the “All” option that

corresponds to the “Calculate all Years“.

 

 

 The last scroll box,

 according to the figure at

the left, contains options

referring to different types of

values that will constitute the

main table. When the main

table is updated or when the

calculation for all years is

made, the values shown refer

to the selected table. In

order to construct the table

containing the selected data, one should click on the “Refresh” button.

The tables available are the following ones:

  1. Old toe – the values are calculated in toe using the  equivalence 1 toe = 10800 Mcal and 1 kWh is equivalent t 3132 kcal = 0,29 toe and the equivalences regarding the different energy sources are based on the HCP (high calorific power)

  2. New toe – the values are calculated in toe using the  equivalence 1 toe = 10000 Mcal and 1 kWh = 860 kcal=0,086 toe and the equivalences regarding the different energy sources are based on the LCP (low calorific power)

  3. bboe/day – the values are calculated in barrel of oil equivalent (1 barrel =159 liters), the equivalences use the LCP (low calorific power)

  4. Natural units – the values are presented in the units supply to BEN (t, m3, etc.)

  5. LCP – the values are expressed in Tcal/year using the low calorific power[1]

  6. HCP – the values are expressed in Tcal/year using the high calorific power.

  7. Equivalent Energy– the values are expressed in toe of equivalent natural gas. The equivalences use the values efficiency relative to natural gas in the different uses and consumption sectors.

  8. Carbon Mass – values in Gg (thousand t) calculated from data in new toe (10000 Mcal in Low Calorific Power PCI) and  recommended coefficients

  9. CH4, CO2, CO, N2O, NOx, NMVOCS – the values are expressed in Gg/year calculated from data in new toe and recommended emission coefficients.

  10. Carbon Emission BU – the values are expressed in Gg/year calculated from data in new toe, and are calculated using the Bottom-Up method.

  11. Emission TDE – the values are expressed in Gg/year calculated from data in new toe, and are calculated using the Top-Down extended method.

  12. Not Emitted – the values are expressed in Gg/year calculated from data in new toe, and are calculated using oxidizing coefficients.

 

4.3 Accounts and Energy Spreadsheets

The “Accounts” and “Energy” spreadsheets are used to construct graphics automatically.

The “Accounts” spreadsheet, shown in the figure below, creates a graphic of a selected account and the selected energy sources. The first scroll box contains the list of all the available accounts and the second one, the list of available tables. It is necessary first to select the account and the desired table in the scroll list and then click on the “OK” button so that the data are loaded. Next, in order to select or remove the energy sources one must click on its name in the table. The selected energy sources will appear in boldface and an “x” on the left side.

 

After selecting the options one must click on the “Arrange Table and Chart” button in order to automatically create the graphic as in the following figure.

 

The “Energies” spreadsheet shown in the figure below makes a graphic of a determined energy source and the selected accounts and operates in the same way as the “Accounts” spreadsheet. The first scroll box has a list of all energy sources available and the second one, the available tables. First, it is necessary to select the energy source and the desired table in the scroll box and click on the “OK” button in order to load the data. Then, in order to include or remove the accounts one must click on its name in the table. The selected accounts will appear in boldface and an “x” on the left side. In order to show the resulting graphic, one must click on the “Arrange Table and Chart” button.

 

4.4 ad hoc spreadsheets

The ad-hoc spreadsheet may be modified, added or deleted by the user. In order to build ad hoc spreadsheets one must select this option in the “Actions” menu and click on the “OK” button, and then the corresponding spreadsheet will be shown as in the figure below.

The column on the left shows the available accounts and the next one, the energy sources options. In order to include or remove an account or energy source one must click on the yellow rectangle on the right side of the option. The chosen items will be marked with an “x” and are shown in boldface.

 

In order to save the ad hoc table one must first select one of the five spreadsheets available for saving in the scroll box as shown above and then click on the “Save” command. One can name the spreadsheet on the cell to the right of the “Save” button; in the example the name is “Top Down”.

In order to visualize the table built without saving it one must click on “Construct ad hoc Table” on the left of the “Save” command so that the main table will be constructed with the selected options.

For modifying a spreadsheet one should select it in the scroll box and then click on the box “Verify Table” at the right side of the listing box.

4.5 Examples of outputs of the bal_eec Program

The “Accounts” and “Energy” spreadsheets are used to generate graphics automatically.

In what follows some examples of outputs of the program. The first example in the figure below shows a main table with data regarding CO2 emissions in the year 2004 according to accounts and energy defined in the format of the “Summary” spreadsheet.

Using the “Print” option in the “Action” menu it is possible to transfer the data to a table that has been previously formatted for printing. In the figure below it is shown part of a print spreadsheet with data relative to CO2 Emission in year 2004.

In the figure below are shown the Carbon Balance values in year 2004in the print spreadsheet.

Another function of the program is the automatic generation of graphics. For this example it was chosen the “Total” account regarding CO2 Emissions along all years available in the “Accounts” Furthermore, the “Renewable”, “Non Renewable” energy sources and the “Total” item were chosen. This selection can be seen in the figure below.

By clicking on the “Arrange Table and Chart” button a table that contains the chosen data is made and it is located just below the graphic. The table made with the previous options is shown in the figure below.

In the figure below it is shown the corresponding graphic.

It is also possible to generate in the “Energy” spreadsheet a graphic using an energy source. In the figure below it is shown the CO2 Emission from Gasoline in the “Road” and “Aerial” accounts.

By clicking on the “Arrange Table and Chart” button the table containing the selected data is automatically generated as shown in the figure below.

And the corresponding graphic is shown below.

 


[1] When fuel is burned in the presence of oxygen and water is one of the product of combustion, the temperature of the adiabatic flame is high enough so that the water is in the vapor phase. In many heat exchangers the temperature of the combustion products (their temperature at the exit of the heat exchanger) is still higher than the water’s boiling point and the vapor’s transformation heat is lost to the atmosphere. This reduces the “calorific power” of the fuel to its “Low Calorific Power”. If the water vapor generated in the combustion is condensed, the transformation heat (condensation) can be recovered and the energy obtained from the conversion process is increased. These conditions produce the “High Calorific Power” of the fuel.

 

Graphic Edition/Edição Gráfica:
MAK
Editoração Eletrônic
a

Revised/Revisado:
Thursday, 24 November 2011
.

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