Economy & Energy
Year IX -No 63:
August - September
2007 
ISSN 1518-2932

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Direct Impact of Nuclear Generation on GHE Gases Emissions in Brazil

The bal_eec Program – User’s Manual Contained Carbon, Equivalent and Final Energy

Auctions of New Energy: Vectors of Offer and Demand Crisis or Adjustment 

http://ecen.com

e&e links

 

 

 Direct impact of Nuclear Generation

on Emissions of Ghe Gases in Brazil

 

Direct Impact of Nuclear Generation

on Emissions of ghe Gases in Brazil

Carlos Feu Alvim feu@ecen.com

Frida Eidelman frida@ecen.com

Olga Mafra olga@ecen.com

Omar Campos Ferreira

Rafael Macêdo

1- Introduction

The evaluation of the impact regarding the introduction of nuclear energy on emissions of GHE gases should be made comparing it with the case it would not be used. That is, this evaluation, as any substitution evaluation, is somewhat subjective: what scenario would we have should the implemented alternative[1] not exist.

In the present study simple assumptions were made and whenever possible, avoiding arbitrary choices.

The basic criteria adopted were:

1.       Considering that the thermal complementation is a demand of the Brazilian electric system and that the energy used (and to be used in the future) instead of nuclear energy would be generated using fossil fuels;

2.      The fuel shares in the thermal generation would be the same as the one in each evaluated year if there was no nuclear energy;

3.      A comparison was made for public service utilities (private and government-owned);

4.      Only direct impacts of fuel used were calculated but the indirect costs for obtaining the fuels (nuclear and conventional) or in the construction and maintenance of plants were not.

2- Participation of Thermal Plants in Electricity Generation

This study evaluates the contribution of nuclear energy to the reduction of greenhouse effect using data from the Carbon Balance - 1970 to 2005. The electric generation of the public power plants was analyzed since they are responsible for 90% of the electricity generation in 2005 while the autonomous plants supply the remaining 10%. Actually nuclear energy will be used in public service power plants.

Figure 2.1 shows the marked predominance of hydraulic energy in electricity generation[2]. In Figure 2.2 it can be noticed that the share of thermal plants has been decreasing since the petroleum prices shock of 1973 (with some recovery around 1986 due the Cruzado Plan and the cold shock of the petroleum prices) and it only increased again in absolute (Figure 2.1) and relative (Figure 2.2) terms from the mid of the nineties on.

It was in this context that the growth of thermal energy share in electricity generation had a more important role in this generation. This fact justifies the use of the existing thermal plants in each year in order to estimate the impact of carbon emission reductions since the probable alternative would be the increase of thermal plants to supply the necessary electric energy.

In order to evaluate the averted emissions in the past it is also necessary to evaluate the share of the different energy sources in electricity generation. As it is known, the carbon quantity emitted by fuels depends on their nature, in particular on the carbon/hydrogen ratio. The burning of natural gas, for example, has a lower emission than that of mineral coal, since all energy of the latter comes from the oxidizing of carbon that generates CO2, whilst in the former there is the contribution of hydrogen that generates H2O. Therefore the emissions averted through the use of nuclear energy depend on the composition of the fuels that would be used in the generation. For the purpose of the present evaluation, the same composition of the existing thermal generation would be considered for the year under evaluation. 

Figure 2.1: Electricity generation by source showing that thermal generation increased from 1994 on. Hydraulic energy represents in the whole period more than 99.96% of the so called renewable energy

Figure 2.2: Share of the different electricity thermal
generation with an amplified scale

3- Emission of GHE Gases in Electricity Generation

Hydraulic and nuclear energy do not directly participate in the formation of GHE gases; methane production by dams, due to the biomass decomposition with insufficient presence of oxygen, is not yet conclusively evaluated. The biomass fuels generation is also not taken into account in the emissions inventory since the emitted carbon is previously absorbed from the atmosphere by the plants.[3]

The evaluation of GHE gases carried out using the Carbon Balance, developed by Economy and Energy - e&e OSCIP for the Ministry of Science and Technology, has shown that the gases that contribute most to the GHE are carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). Therefore, carbon emission is an important parameter for evaluating the contribution of the different energy sources to increase the greenhouse effect.

In Table 3.1 it is analyzed the contribution in the year 2005 of the different energy sources to electricity generation and carbon emissions.  

Table 3.1: Contribution of Energy Sources to Electricity Generation and Carbon Emissions

YEAR 2005

UniT

 ELECTRICITY

 (1) RENEWABLE EN.  (*)

 (2)  NATU RAL GAS

 (3)  PET AND  PT AND NG  PRODUCTS+ OUT

 (4) MIN. COAL AND PRODUCTS

SUB-TOTAL FOSSIL

(5) =(2+(3)+(4)e

 (6)  NUCLEAR

THÉRMAL PLANTS

(7) = (5)+(6)

TOTAL

(8)=(1)+(7)

1 ENERGY

thou toe

31231

-27976

-2908

-2087

-1837

-6832

-2482

-9314

-37290

2 ELECTRICITY GENERATION
PER SOURCE

thou toe

 

27963

1195

709

525

2429

848

3277

31239

3 GENERATION EFFICIÊNCY
 PER  ENERGY SOURCE

 

 

1.00

0.41

0.34

0.29

0.36

0.34

0.35

0.84

4 2 ELECTRICITY GENERATION
PER SOURCE

TWh

363,3

325

13.8

8.2

6.1

28.3

9.9

38.1

363.3

5  CARBON EMISSIONS

thou t

 

26

1853

1780

1944

5577

0

5577

5603

6 CARBON EMISSIONS /
 GENERATED ELECTRICITY

tC/
Mwh

 

0.00

0.13

0.22

0.32

0.20

0.00

0.15

0.02

7 CARBON EMISSIONS /
 GENERATED ELECTRICITY

tC
/toe

 

0.00

1.55

2.51

3.70

2.30

0.00

2.30

0.18

8  REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS

thou tC/
year

 

64191

 

 

 

 

1946

1946

66136

 (*) 99,97% hydraulic energy

Table 3.1 was used to illustrate the process used in the evaluation of emissions averted by the use of nuclear energy. In order to evaluate these emissions for the whole available period (from1970 to 2005), it is necessary to retrieve the data shown in Table 3.1 for all the years. This was carried out in Annex 1.

Besides the impact of nuclear energy on emissions reduction, one can try to evaluate the effect corresponding to the use of hydraulic energy as it is also shown in Table 3.1. Even though this has been done as an exercise, the assumption that the thermal generation profile would be the same as the one valid for each year, it is more questionable in this case than that of nuclear energy since in Brazil hydraulic energy corresponds to the largest share of generated energy and the scenario of its substitution would be much more complex. For example, due to the non availability of large volumes of natural gas, it would be rather improbable that it would participate so intensively in the global generation as it participates in the subset of fossil energy. This would increase the impact to be assigned to hydraulic energy on emissions reduction[4].

The tables of Annex 1 were organized in the same way as the rows of Table 3.1. So Table A1.1 corresponds to row 1 of Table 3.1 and so forth until row 6 that corresponds to Table A1.6.

Row 1 of Table 3.1 (and Table A1.1) shows the energy values corresponding to the transformation of the energy contained in the different energy sources (or groups of energy sources) into electricity. Following the convention adopted in BEN, the values of “consumed” energy are represented as negative values while those of “produced” energy, namely electricity, are positive.

In row 2 of Table 3.1 and Table A1.2 are shown data relative to electric energy generation per energy source. The values of Table A1.2 were the base for constructing Figures 3.1 and 3.2. In row 3 and Table A1.3 are shown the values of the generated electric energy / consumed energy ratio that represent the apparent generation efficiency.

Efficiency is an important factor for determining past and future emissions. The evolution of the apparent efficiency of electric generation is shown in Figure 3.1 for natural gas, petroleum and natural gas products, mineral coal and nuclear energy in apparent values since they are based on recorded fuel consumption and electric generation. Besides the natural statistical uncertainties, in the nuclear case there is a natural difference between the record of fuel consumption (assumed to be accounted for when it is fed into the reactor) and its effective use since the uranium can remain in the reactor core for years. Some thermal plants are maintained in operation condition even when they are not generating electric energy which means loss of fuel and efficiency decrease. Therefore, it was expected the increase of efficiency with higher use of thermal plants in the last years.

Figure 3.1: Evolution of apparent efficiency that, as expected, has increased in the last years due to higher use of thermal energy in generation

It should be noted that in row 3 of Table 3.1 (and in Table A1.3) the marked efficiency of hydraulic energy is 1 (100%) which is thermodynamically not viable but results from the form the hydraulic energy is accounted for (by the value of the generated electric energy without taking into account the mechanical losses).

In order to obtain emissions data it was used the bal_eec software owned by ECEN Consultoria and developed by OSCIP Economy and Energy - e&e, described in Annex 2. This program permits also to calculate the CO2, CO, CH4, NMVOCs, N2O and NOx emissions.

Row 4 (and Table A1.4) presents data of row 1 (electric energy generation in toe) converted to GWh.

The evolution of carbon emissions, with considerable increase from the nineties on, is shown in Table A1.4 and in Figure 3.2. In the figure it is shown the share of emissions by type of fuel. In 2005 the contributions to carbon emissions were almost equally distributed regarding electric energy from natural gas, petroleum (and NG) products and mineral coal. As an illustration it is also indicated, as usual, the correspondent CO2 mass (carbon mass X 44/12). The unit used, teragram (1Tg = 1012 g), corresponds to one million tons.

Figure 3.2: Carbon emissions from electricity generation and the corresponding CO2 emissions (carbonic gas that would be generated from the carbon mass)

In Figures 3.3 (data from Table A1.3) and 3.4 (data from A1.2) are shown the shares in energy generation that are quite different from those of carbon emissions. Natural gas, responsible for half of the electric energy generation from fossil fuels in 2005, had a share of one third of emissions in this year. This is due to its higher efficiency and its lower carbon content per contained energy when compared with coal and with petroleum products.

 

Figure 3.3: Participation of sources in electricity
generation from public service plants

Figure 3.4: Participation of sources in carbon emissions in
electricity generation from public service plants

As a result of fossil fuels composition variation and its efficiency regarding electricity generation, emission coefficients per unit of generated energy have varied along time as can be seen in Figure 3.4 (data from Table A1.6).

In order to evaluate the averted emissions, the value used was that corresponding to the average value of fossil fuels (see row 6 of Table 3.1 and column fossil in Table 1.6). The averted emissions are obtained multiplying the emission coefficient for fossil fuels (0.20 tC/MWh in 2005) by the electricity generated using nuclear energy.

The use of this coefficient is a consequence of the adopted assumptions (in case of no nuclear generation the shares of thermal energy in the total generation and the structure of fossil generation would be the same). The averted emissions by MWh of generated nuclear energy have decreased along the period following the curve of fossil fuels shown in Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.5: Carbon emissions by unit of electric energy
generated and average value of fossil energy.

The averted emissions by MWh of generated nuclear energy are shown in Figure 3.6 in two scales (tC/tep and tC per MWh).

The averted emissions by MWh of generated nuclear energy are shown in Table 3.2 and compared with emissions averted by hydroelectric plants and carburant alcohol. In Annex 3 the process adopted to estimate the emissions averted by the use of carburant alcohol is described.

Figure 3.6: Carbon emission coefficient per electric energy generated by fossil fuels that was used to evaluate emissions averted by nuclear energy

Figure 3.7: Emissions averted by the use of nuclear energy compared with averted emissions assigned to hydraulic energy and use of carburant alcohol

Table 3.2 – Averted Carbon Emissions

 

AVERTED CARBON EMISSIONS  HYDRIo

AVERTED CARBON EMISSIONS

NUCLEAR

AVERTED CARBOEMISSIONS ÁLCOHOL

TOTAL

AVERTED CO2 EMISSIONS HYDRO

AVERTED CO2   EMISSIONS

NUCLEAR

AVERTED CO2 EMISSIONS ALCOHOL

TOTAL

 

1000 t C

1000 t

C

1000 t C

1000 t C

1000 t 

CO2

1000 t CO2

1000 t 

CO2

1000 t 

CO2

1970

12533

 

106

12639

45953

0

388

46341

1971

11290

 

146

11436

41396

0

536

41932

1972

15292

 

225

15517

56069

0

825

56895

1973

18273

 

178

18451

67001

0

652

67653

1974

22339

 

109

22449

81910

0

401

82312

1975

21950

 

93

22043

80483

0

342

80825

1976

21708

 

99

21807

79598

0

363

79961

1977

26705

 

368

27073

97918

0

1349

99268

1978

30331

 

867

31198

111212

0

3179

114391

1979

35055

 

1286

36341

128533

0

4717

133250

1980

36499

 

1534

38034

133831

0

5625

139457

1981

37964

 

1429

39392

139200

0

5239

144438

1982

40330

 

2088

42418

147876

0

7657

155533

1983

42089

 

2893

44983

154327

0

10609

164937

1984

47147

474

3724

51346

172874

1737

13656

188267

1985

49982

964

4586

55532

183266

3534

16817

203617

1986

46391

37

6041

52470

170101

137

22152

192390

1987

51727

276

6154

58158

189667

1013

22565

213245

1988

57830

180

6524

64534

212043

659

23923

236625

1989

54234

494

7017

61745

198857

1810

25730

226397

1990

65286

717

6304

72307

239384

2630

23114

265127

1991

68091

458

6571

75120

249668

1678

24092

275438

1992

70972

566

6428

77965

260230

2075

23568

285873

1993

71784

137

6703

78624

263209

502

24576

288287

1994

74123

17

7148

81287

271783

62

26208

298053

1995

77457

779

7390

85626

284008

2856

27098

313963

1996

74024

687

7692

82403

271421

2520

28205

302146

1997

77964

900

7429

86293

285868

3299

27241

316407

1998

81426

928

7289

89644

298562

3404

26728

328694

1999

75342

1043

7270

83654

276253

3824

26656

306732

2000

78033

1580

6193

85806

286120

5794

22706

314620

2001

61943

3367

5692

71002

227124

12347

20871

260342

2002

56819

2821

6114

65755

208335

10345

22419

241100

2003

58391

2651

6132

67173

214100

9719

22484

246303

2004

57068

2147

6822

66038

209250

7873

25015

242139

2005

64172

1946

7372

73490

235299

7134

27032

269464

1970/2005

1792563

23169

154020

1969752

6572732

84952

564740

7222424

2000/2005

298393

12932

32133

343458

1094109

47418

117821

1259348

The evaluation made shows that nuclear energy has averted the emission of 85 million tons of CO2 between 1984 (year when Angra I started to generate electricity) and 2005 of which 47 million in the 2000/2005 period. Comparatively the emissions averted by the use of nuclear energy between 2000 and 2005 would be about 40% of that corresponding to the use of carburant alcohol and 4% relative to hydraulic energy.

In the present study it was assumed for both the nuclear and hydraulic energies the same share of fuels presently used. The emissions averted by alcohol were calculated in terms of equivalent energy that takes into account the higher efficiency of alcohol relative to that of gasoline as well as its lower energy content. This equivalence varies year by year because the shares of anhydrous and hydrated alcohol are different.

The estimates are 2.04 tones of CO2 by m3 of alcohol used, as compared to 2.44 tCO2/m3 from the evaluation made for the First Brazilian Declaration to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The differences in equivalences and emission rates used explain the discrepancy.

Concerning nuclear energy, the emission average value was 0.29 tC/MWh,, corresponding to 0.98 tCO2/MWh. In the mentioned Declaration two scenarios were defined for estimating the values of emissions averted by hydraulic energy. In the publication it is written that the same scenarios were adopted for nuclear energy but it does not explain the mix of energy sources that would substitute the nuclear energy. In scenario I the averted emission is 0.29 tCO2/MWh and in scenario II, 0.73 t CO2 /MWh. Since both scenarios include a share of hydraulic energy, the lower values in the Declaration could be assigned to this hypothesis. It should be remembered that the Declaration does not consider the thermal plants option that was intensified after the year 2000 and corroborated the hypothesis that the probable substitute of nuclear energy would be fossil fuel.

4 – Possible Complementary Evaluations

A impact evaluation could be carried out in three levels: 1) the direct impacts resulting from the comparison of using the fuel at issue and the alternative ones; 2) the impacts comprising the production, storage, transport and waste disposal steps (also compared with the alternatives) and 3) the impacts involving all indirect costs of supplies that are part of the productive chain.

The evaluation carried out here refers only to the direct effects of substituting the conventional thermal generation by the nuclear one until 2005 (level 1). Therefore it is not considered the energy used for extracting, processing and disposing wastes regarding the nuclear cycle relative to for example that involved in the corresponding steps of the coal cycle (level 2).

 In a more complex evaluation (level 3) one could analyze the indirect emissions such as those from the fabrication of machines and equipment used in the different steps for obtaining the fuel, as well as the investments on infrastructure connected with the activity; this could be carried out using the input X product of IBGE and using carbon emission coefficients of each activity. Concerning the energy part, the Carbon Balance made by the Economy and Energy OSCIP – e&e would supply the necessary coefficients.

In the nineties some doubts were cast about the indirect energy costs in electricity production (doubts similar to the present ones regarding alcohol). Studies have shown that the energy balance was indeed positive when the costs concerning waste storage and the use of inefficient enrichment process such as the jet nozzle (demonstration yield). As the emissions resulting from industrial processes are directly linked to energy, the same would be true concerning indirect emissions.

The averted emissions considered here do not take into account the better use of hydraulic energy made possible by thermal complementation. This evaluation can be made using the methodology developed by the project of ECEN Consultoria for Eletronuclear.

5 - Conclusion

Nuclear energy was considered as an option that is inserted in the thermal complementation to the Brazilian electrical system. It was adopted the hypothesis that nuclear energy would be substituted by a mix of other fuels used in thermal generation in public service plants in each year. As a result it was concluded that in Brazil nuclear energy has averted the emission of 85 million tons of CO2.

The impact evaluation of hydraulic plants is just indicative but a comparison assuming the same fuel profile used for the nuclear energy indicates that the emissions averted by nuclear energy with only two plants (47 million tons between 2000 and 2005) is equivalent to 4% of that averted by hydraulic energy and 40% of that averted by the use of carburant alcohol in the same period.

 

Annex 1 – Tables for Calculating Averted Emissions 1970/2005

Table A1.1:
Energy Transformation in Public Service Power Plants
(thousand toe / year)

 

 NATU RAL GAS

 HYDRAULIC EN

  ELECTRICITY

 PET AND PT AND
 NG + PRODUCTS

 PET, NG  PRODUCTS + OTHERS

 MINERAL COAL AND PRODUCTS

 RENEWABLE

 NUCLEAR

FÓSSIL

TOTAL

ELECTRRICITY

1970

0

-3302

3613

-768

-768

-485

-3302

0

-1253

-4556

42033

1971

0

-3599

4113

-1230

-1230

-506

-3599

0

-1736

-5335

47840

1972

0

-4233

4564

-719

-719

-540

-4233

0

-1260

-5492

53093

1973

0

-4839

5187

-934

-934

-476

-4839

0

-1410

-6249

60343

1974

0

-5500

5769

-702

-702

-456

-5500

0

-1158

-6658

67107

1975

0

-6051

6350

-712

-712

-442

-6051

0

-1154

-7205

73868

1976

0

-6936

7267

-671

-671

-430

-6936

0

-1100

-8036

84531

1977

0

-7813

8174

-746

-746

-554

-7813

0

-1301

-9113

95082

1978

0

-8596

9106

-921

-921

-946

-8596

0

-1867

-10463

105930

1979

0

-9796

10224

-810

-810

-786

-9796

0

-1596

-11392

118926

1980

0

-10841

11265

-820

-820

-683

-10841

0

-1503

-12344

131040

1981

0

-11012

11521

-872

-872

-952

-11012

0

-1825

-12836

134022

1982

0

-11900

12336

-584

-584

-921

-11900

0

-1505

-13405

143499

1983

0

-12766

13137

-559

-559

-703

-12766

0

-1262

-14028

152816

1984

0

-14060

14597

-552

-552

-808

-14061

-857

-1359

-16276

169798

1985

0

-15073

15848

-676

-676

-968

-15096

-916

-1643

-17633

184356

1986

0

-15387

16460

-2157

-2157

-1248

-15416

-37

-3406

-18830

191473

1987

0

-15655

16529

-1789

-1789

-1011

-15700

-266

-2799

-18720

192275

1988

-2

-16810

17518

-1658

-1660

-782

-16842

-162

-2442

-19414

203781

1989

-69

-17288

18119

-1090

-1159

-1072

-17295

-473

-2231

-19992

210775

1990

-5

-17502

18131

-741

-746

-941

-17502

-598

-1687

-19787

210913

1991

-1

-18449

19079

-809

-810

-1111

-18449

-406

-1921

-20776

221934

1992

-1

-18963

19661

-1049

-1050

-1091

-18963

-347

-2141

-21450

228711

1993

-5

-19918

20454

-880

-885

-986

-19918

-140

-1871

-21930

237938

1994

-8

-20586

21137

-1004

-1012

-1043

-20586

-22

-2056

-22664

245875

1995

-6

-21531

22409

-1250

-1257

-1244

-21531

-894

-2500

-24925

260678

1996

-8

-22475

23494

-1538

-1546

-1272

-22475

-783

-2818

-26076

273300

1997

-27

-23605

24831

-1759

-1787

-1540

-23605

-1057

-3326

-27988

288845

1998

-44

-24617

25890

-2019

-2063

-1450

-24617

-1449

-3512

-29578

301165

1999

-112

-24699

26708

-3101

-3213

-2231

-24699

-1389

-5444

-31532

310681

2000

-311

-25666

27844

-2845

-3156

-2267

-25666

-1774

-5423

-32863

323899

2001

-1362

-22580

25903

-2895

-4256

-2246

-22580

-3695

-6502

-32778

301318

2002

-1905

-23955

27106

-2185

-4091

-1469

-23955

-3607

-5559

-33121

315309

2003

-1757

-25308

28318

-1800

-3557

-1542

-25308

-3437

-5099

-33843

329282

2004

-3025

-26538

30060

-1961

-4987

-1724

-26538

-3030

-6711

-36279

349539

2005

-2908

-27955

31231

-2087

-4995

-1837

-27974

-2482

-6832

-37269

363156

Table A1.2:
Electricity Produced in Public Service Power Plants
(thousand toe / year)

 

  NATU RAL GAS

  . HYDRAULIC EN

 ELECTRICITY

 PET AND PT AND
NG + PRODUCTS

 PET, NG  PRODUCTS + OTHERS

 MINERAL COAL AND PRODUCTS

 RENEWABLE

 NUCLEAR

FÓSSIL

TOTAL

1970

0

3302

0

197

197

114

3302

0

311

3613

1971

0

3599

0

400

400

112

3600

0

512

4111

1972

0

4233

0

195

195

136

4233

0

331

4564

1973

0

4839

0

260

260

88

4839

0

348

5187

1974

0

5500

0

188

188

81

5500

0

269

5769

1975

0

6051

0

191

191

108

6051

0

299

6350

1976

0

6936

0

244

244

86

6936

0

331

7267

1977

0

7813

0

244

244

117

7813

0

361

8174

1978

0

8596

0

291

291

219

8596

0

510

9106

1979

0

9796

0

229

229

199

9796

0

428

10224

1980

0

10841

0

212

212

212

10841

0

424

11265

1981

0

11012

0

224

224

286

11012

0

510

11521

1982

0

11900

0

149

149

287

11900

0

436

12336

1983

0

12766

0

155

155

216

12766

0

371

13137

1984

0

14060

0

158

158

237

14060

141

396

14597

1985

0

15073

0

196

196

287

15074

291

483

15847

1986

0

15387

0

674

674

384

15390

12

1058

16457

1987

0

15655

0

482

482

305

15658

84

788

16526

1988

0

16810

0

421

422

232

16812

52

653

17516

1989

18

17288

0

331

349

324

17289

157

673

18119

1990

1

17502

0

203

204

233

17502

192

437

18131

1991

0

18449

0

220

220

286

18449

124

506

19079

1992

0

18963

0

279

279

268

18963

151

548

19661

1993

0

19918

0

250

250

249

19918

38

499

20454

1994

0

20586

0

279

279

267

20586

5

546

21137

1995

0

21531

0

347

347

315

21531

217

662

22409

1996

0

22475

0

462

462

348

22475

209

810

23494

1997

6

23605

0

494

500

453

23605

272

953

24830

1998

13

24617

0

581

594

398

24617

281

992

25889

1999

39

24699

0

1011

1050

616

24700

342

1666

26708

2000

135

25666

0

883

1018

640

25666

520

1658

27844

2001

594

22580

0

867

1460

632

22583

1228

2092

25900

2002

838

23955

0

685

1523

435

23958

1190

1958

27102

2003

780

25308

0

625

1405

452

25313

1149

1857

28313

2004

1263

26538

0

710

1973

546

26543

999

2518

30055

2005

1195

27955

0

709

1904

525

27963

848

2429

31231

Table A1.3:
Efficiency of Energy Transformation in
Public Service Power Plants

 

  NATU RAL GAS

  . HYDRAULIC EN

 ELECTRICITY

 PET AND PT AND
NG + PRODUCTS

 PET, NG  PRODUCTS + OTHERS

 MINERAL COAL AND PRODUCTS

 RENEWABLE

 NUCLEAR

FÓSSIL

TOTAL

1970

 

1.00

 

0.26

0.26

0.23

1.00

 

0.25

0.79

1971

 

1.00

 

0.33

0.33

0.22

1.00

 

0.30

0.77

1972

 

1.00

 

0.27

0.27

0.25

1.00

 

0.26

0.83

1973

 

1.00

 

0.28

0.28

0.18

1.00

 

0.25

0.83

1974

 

1.00

 

0.27

0.27

0.18

1.00

 

0.23

0.87

1975

 

1.00

 

0.27

0.27

0.24

1.00

 

0.26

0.88

1976

 

1.00

 

0.36

0.36

0.20

1.00

 

0.30

0.90

1977

 

1.00

 

0.33

0.33

0.21

1.00

 

0.28

0.90

1978

 

1.00

 

0.32

0.32

0.23

1.00

 

0.27

0.87

1979

 

1.00

 

0.28

0.28

0.25

1.00

 

0.27

0.90

1980

 

1.00

 

0.26

0.26

0.31

1.00

 

0.28

0.91

1981

 

1.00

 

0.26

0.26

0.30

1.00

 

0.28

0.90

1982

 

1.00

 

0.25

0.25

0.31

1.00

 

0.29

0.92

1983

 

1.00

 

0.28

0.28

0.31

1.00

 

0.29

0.94

1984

 

1.00

 

0.29

0.29

0.29

1.00

0.16

0.29

0.90

1985

 

1.00

 

0.29

0.29

0.30

1.00

0.32

0.29

0.90

1986

 

1.00

 

0.31

0.31

0.31

1.00

0.33

0.31

0.87

1987

 

1.00

 

0.27

0.27

0.30

1.00

0.31

0.28

0.88

1988

0.22

1.00

 

0.25

0.25

0.30

1.00

0.32

0.27

0.90

1989

0.27

1.00

 

0.30

0.30

0.30

1.00

0.33

0.30

0.91

1990

0.20

1.00

 

0.27

0.27

0.25

1.00

0.32

0.26

0.92

1991

0.39

1.00

 

0.27

0.27

0.26

1.00

0.30

0.26

0.92

1992

0.29

1.00

 

0.27

0.27

0.25

1.00

0.44

0.26

0.92

1993

 

1.00

 

0.28

0.28

0.25

1.00

0.27

0.27

0.93

1994

 

1.00

 

0.28

0.28

0.26

1.00

0.21

0.27

0.93

1995

 

1.00

 

0.28

0.28

0.25

1.00

0.24

0.26

0.90

1996

 

1.00

 

0.30

0.30

0.27

1.00

0.27

0.29

0.90

1997

0.22

1.00

 

0.28

0.28

0.29

1.00

0.26

0.29

0.89

1998

0.29

1.00

 

0.29

0.29

0.27

1.00

0.19

0.28

0.88

1999

0.35

1.00

 

0.33

0.33

0.28

1.00

0.25

0.31

0.85

2000

0.43

1.00

 

0.31

0.32

0.28

1.00

0.29

0.31

0.85

2001

0.44

1.00

 

0.30

0.34

0.28

1.00

0.33

0.32

0.79

2002

0.44

1.00

 

0.31

0.37

0.30

1.00

0.33

0.35

0.82

2003

0.44

1.00

 

0.35

0.39

0.29

1.00

0.33

0.36

0.84

2004

0.42

1.00

 

0.36

0.40

0.32

1.00

0.33

0.38

0.83

2005

0.41

1.00

 

0.34

0.38

0.29

1.00

0.34

0.36

0.84

Table A1.4:
Electricity Produced in Public Service Power Plants (GWh/ year)

 

  NATU RAL GAS

  . HYDRAULIC EN

 ELECTRICITY

 PET AND PT AND
NG + PRODUCTS

 PET, NG  PRODUCTS + OTHERS

 MINERAL COAL AND PRODUCTS

 RENEWABLE

 NUCLEAR

FÓSSIL

TOTAL

1970

0

38399

0

2296

2296

1321

38399

0

3617

42016

1971

0

41850

0

4650

4650

1306

41864

0

5956

47807

1972

0

49217

0

2273

2273

1577

49222

0

3850

53067

1973

0

56267

0

3028

3028

1024

56267

0

4052

60319

1974

0

63955

0

2187

2187

938

63955

0

3125

67080

1975

0

70359

0

2224

2224

1256

70359

0

3480

73839

1976

0

80650

0

2842

2842

1006

80650

0

3847

84497

1977

0

90847

0

2843

2843

1355

90847

0

4198

95044

1978

0

99956

0

3385

3385

2547

99956

0

5931

105887

1979

0

113906

0

2660

2660

2312

113906

0

4972

118879

1980

0

126054

0

2466

2466

2468

126054

0

4934

130987

1981

0

128044

0

2604

2604

3321

128044

0

5925

133969

1982

0

138377

0

1730

1730

3334

138377

0

5065

143441

1983

0

148444

0

1802

1802

2508

148445

0

4311

152754

1984

0

163487

0

1842

1842

2758

163488

1642

4600

169729

1985

0

175264

0

2284

2284

3335

175284

3380

5619

184262

1986

0

178919

0

7832

7832

4469

178951

144

12301

191365

1987

0

182032

0

5608

5608

3551

182066

973

9159

192164

1988

5

195469

0

4899

4904

2694

195494

608

7598

203674

1989

215

201024

0

3848

4063

3768

201031

1829

7831

210684

1990

12

203513

0

2358

2370

2710

203513

2236

5080

210828

1991

4

214523

0

2555

2559

3322

214523

1441

5881

221845

1992

3

220495

0

3243

3246

3121

220495

1758

6366

228620

1993

0

231602

0

2903

2903

2895

231602

442

5798

237842

1994

0

239371

0

3247

3247

3104

239371

55

6350

245777

1995

0

250356

0

4033

4033

3667

250356

2518

7700

260574

1996

0

261340

0

5372

5372

4050

261342

2426

9422

273189

1997

70

274476

0

5750

5820

5262

274480

3168

11082

288725

1998

150

286243

0

6754

6904

4628

286248

3264

11532

301040

1999

450

287202

0

11759

12209

7168

287204

3975

19377

310555

2000

1569

298444

0

10267

11836

7445

298445

6044

19281

323768

2001

6904

262560

0

10076

16980

7349

262595

14273

24329

301162

2002

9742

278545

0

7965

17707

5060

278585

13831

22767

315143

2003

9073

294274

0

7265

16338

5251

294335

13358

21589

329221

2004

14681

308584

0

8258

22939

6344

308645

11611

29283

349478

2005

13898

325053

0

8243

22140

6107

325146

9855

28248

363155

Table A1.5:
Carbon Emissions in Electricity Production
 in Public Service Power Plants (thou  t/ year or Gg/year)

 

  NATU RAL GAS

  . HYDRAULIC EN

 ELECTRICITY

 PET AND PT AND
NG + PRODUCTS

 PET, NG  PRODUCTS + OTHERS

 MINERAL COAL AND PRODUCTS

 RENEWABLE

 NUCLEAR

FÓSSIL

TOTAL

1970

0

0

0

667

667

513

0

0

1181

1181

1971

0

0

0

1071

1071

536

0

0

1607

1607

1972

0

0

0

624

624

572

0

0

1196

1196

1973

0

0

0

812

812

504

0

0

1316

1316

1974

0

0

0

609

609

482

0

0

1092

1092

1975

0

0

0

618

618

467

0

0

1086

1086

1976

0

0

0

581

581

455

0

0

1036

1036

1977

0

0

0

647

647

587

0

0

1234

1234

1978

0

0

0

799

799

1001

0

0

1800

1800

1979

0

0

0

698

698

832

0

0

1530

1530

1980

0

0

0

705

705

723

0

0

1429

1429

1981

0

0

0

749

749

1008

0

0

1757

1757

1982

0

0

0

501

501

975

0

0

1476

1476

1983

0

0

0

478

478

744

0

0

1222

1222

1984

0

0

0

472

472

855

0

0

1327

1327

1985

0

0

0

578

578

1024

0

0

1602

1602

1986

0

0

0

1868

1868

1321

0

0

3190

3190

1987

0

0

0

1533

1533

1069

0

0

2603

2603

1988

1

0

0

1418

1420

828

0

0

2248

2248

1989

46

0

0

932

978

1134

0

0

2113

2113

1990