Economy & Energy
Year IX -No 60:
February 2006 - March  2007 
ISSN 1518-2932

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Agreement Letter signed by  e&e – OSCIP, MCT and PNUD, for Evaluating Emissions Associated with the Greenhouse Effect

Analysis of Specific Problems Related to Emissions that Generate the Greenhouse Effect

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Project Carried out by OSCIP e&e:

Agreement Letter signed by  e&e – OSCIP, MCT and PNUD, with resources from GEF, for Evaluating Emissions Associated with the Greenhouse Effect relative to Energy Transformation and Use

 

Summary

1. Introduction

2. Details of the Study in the Agreement Letter

2.1. Object

2.2. Specific Objectives:

2.2.1 Specific Objectives nº 01

2.2.2 Specific Objectives nº 02

2.2.3 Specific Objectives nº 03

2.2.4 Specific Objectives nº 04

2.3 - Methodology

2.3.1 Reference Top Down Approach and (TD) Extended Top Down Approach(TDE)

2.3.2 Sectorial Bottom-Up Approach(BU)

2.3.3 Articulation with Specific Studies

2.3.4 Emissions per Unit of the Federation

2.4. Details of the Activities

2.4.1 Activities of Objective 1: Reference Approach and Reference Extended (TD and TDE)

2.4.2 Activities of Objective 2 - Bottom-Up (BU) Sectorial Approach

2.4.3 Activities of Objective 3 – Articulation and Consolidation of Specific Studies

2.4.4 Activities of Objective 4 – Evaluation of Emissions  in the States

      2.5. Description of products to be developed

2.5.1 Technical Notes

2.5.2 Reports

2.5.3 Spreadsheets of Results

2.5.4 Specification of Products

 
 

1. Introduction

For elaborating the Brazilian Declaration to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change the Ministry of Science and Technology – MCT, and the United Nations Program for Development – PNUD, have signed an agreement that resulted in the Project BRA/05/G31 of which MCT is the executive agency. The program has resources from GEF (Global Environment Facility).

The e&e Civil Organization of Public Interest – OSCIP, MCT and PNUD have signed the Agreement Letter Nº 4700003495/2006 regarding studies for subsidizing the preparation of the National Inventory of Antropic Emissions of Greenhouse Effect Gases for the Energy Sector (Reference Top-Down – TD, Approach and Bottom-Up – BU, Sectorial Approach) and for the articulation with the other studies in the energy area. A series of complementary studies to be conducted by e&e – OSCIP, will complement data relative to Brazil (characteristics of fuel, equipment and processes) related to emission coefficients of the different greenhouse effect gases.

In the present report are described the methodology and the products of the studies foreseen in the Agreement Letter in which e&e – OSCIP, is the technical executive partner, as well as the methodology of articulation with other studies in the energy area and the products to be generated by them.

2. Details of Studies Proposed in the Agreement Letter

2.1. Object

Elaboration of Reference Studies for subsidizing  the preparation of the do National Inventory of Antropic Emissions of Greenhouse Effect Gases for the Energy Sector (Reference Top-Down – TD, Approach, Sectorial Bottom-Up – BU, Approach) and articulation with the other studies in the energy area.

2.2. Specific Objectives:

2.2.1 Specific Objectives nº 01.

Survey of CO2 Emissions in the Energy Sector in Brazil by the Reference Approach (Top-Down) in the 1990 - 2000 period, and updating and revision from 1990 to 1994.

2.2.2 Specific Objectives nº 02

Survey of Greenhouse Effect Gases in the Energy Sector by the Sectorial Approach (Bottom-Up) in the 1990 – 2000 period, and updating and revision from 1990 to 1994.

2.2.3 Specific Objectives nº 03

Articulation with the sectorial studies proposed in the BRA/05/G31/1G/A/01 project in the energy area aiming at improving the Bottom-Up Approach and collecting elements that contribute to the upgrading of the Second National Communication to the Convention on Climate Change.

2.2.4 Specific Objectives nº 04

Elaboration of state energy balances by the Reference Extended Approach (see item 2.3.1.that follows) and by the Sectorial Approach established by the IPCC using  emission factors estimated at the national levels (1990 and 2000 years).

2.3 - Methodology

The methodology to be used is that described in the Revised 1996 Guidelines  of the Intergovernmental Pannell on Climate Change (IPCC) [Ref.1] and elaborated in the Guide of Good Practice for the Inventory of Greenhouse Effect Gases of IPCC [Ref 2]. As a consistency test it will be used the carbon balance previously developed by e&e.

It will be also estimated the emissions in the States of the Federation by the Reference Extended Approach and the Sectorial Approach using emission factors applied to data of the States Energy Balance calculated for two years using data from the National Energy Balance – BEN. The main aspects of this methodology are described  below.

The results will be presented as reports complemented by specific Technical Notes – TN, of each phase of the study, produced in the ambit of the project or through contracting of external advisers and whenever necessary they will be annexed to the intermediary and final reports.

2.3.1. Reference Top Down (TD) and Extended Top Down (TDE) Approches

The Extended Top-Down (TDE) Approach consists of applying to the energy balance the approximation used in the Reference Approach(TD) established by the IPCC. The TD approach is limited to the total energy supply and it is used to calculate the carbon mass that enters and leaves the energy system of a country. A simplified correction of the non-oxidized and of the retained carbon in non-energy applications gives a first approximation of the carbon mass emitted to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). The TDE approach extends this treatment to the production, transformation and use phases and therefore permits to estimate sectorial CO2 emissions by type of fuel. These results can be compared to the IPCC Sectorial Approach through the carbon balance.

In these approaches it will be used the National Energy Balance (BEN) from 1990 to 2000. The emission parameters and factors used in the previous inventory (from 1990 to 1994) in the TD approach will be revised and complemented by external measurements results. The emission factors of the extended Top-Down approach will be the base for calculating the CO2 state emissions.

2.3.2. Sectorial Bottom-Up (BU) Approach

In the Bottom-Up approach it is used the transformation and consumption data from the National Energy Balance and from the Useful Energy Balance and data from specific studies of the energy transformation and use sectors in order to calculate the different gases of the greenhouse effect gases. The Useful Energy Balance gives the destination of each energy source (in  final energy) by type of use for the different sectors as well as the respective efficiency. Of the destinations available only those concerning process heat, direct heating and motive power that indicate the technology used (boiler or heater, oven or dryer and engines or turbines, respectively) are of interest in what regards emissions. A residual application of fuels that contain carbon for illumination (where electricity is not available) is also considered. The identification of the use and characteristics of the sectors permits to infer the equipment used and therefore to use the emission coefficients recommended by IPCC.

In the approach recommended for the present phase (IPCC Tier 2) it is tried to establish coefficients adequate for Brazil. It should be remembered that the peculiarities of each country in what regards emissions are connected with the difference of the fuels used and/or the characteristics of the equipment of use and transformation. Sectorial studies can better identify the equipment used and the emission coefficients in the Brazilian conditions.

In the Sectorial Approach (Bottom-Up) it will be considered data from the consolidated energy balance and the values calculated for the national emissions inventory (from the Initial Brazilian Communication) as well as the value calculated in the present study. To complement emission data in the energy area, the sectorial studies proposed in the BRA/05/G31/1G/A/01 project in the energy use area, as well as others studies for subsidizing the inventory, will be concentrated on the following information: differences in the fuels used and characteristics of equipment and technologies used in Brazil. In the case where specific studies are not available, the coefficients recommended by IPCC or those from previous studies will be used.

In the systematization to be used in the present study, the consolidated emissions data will be used to deduce emission coefficients per fuel and per sector that will be used in the states emissions.

2.3.3 – Articulation with Specific Studies

The interaction of the present study with the others in the energy area in the framework of the Second Inventory is necessary so that the results can be used in the emission calculations. For this purpose the terms of reference of the already proposed studies in the ambit of the present project will be revised, some questions will be suggested and it will be specified the form in which the results should be presented so that they can be directly used in the emissions evaluation. It will be also presented suggestions of terms of reference for additional studies.

2.3.4 Emissions per Unit of the Federation (UF)

In the calculation of national emissions of greenhouse effect gases by the Bottom-Up approach it will be obtained emission coefficients for each gas per energy unit and type of fuel for the different sectors of the economy. These national coefficients will be used to obtain a first approximation of the of the UF emissions. The state data will be obtained from the National Energy Balance – BEN.

2.4. Details of Activities

The activities listed below are proposed for specific objectives and the corresponding products are mentioned between parenthesis.

Figure 1 shows the scheme of the study as well as the complementary studies to be carried out by e&e and other institutions. Some of these studies are proposed for Project BRA/05/G31/1G/A/01 (continuous text boxes). The other studies are suggested to complement it (discontinuous text boxes).

2.4.1. Activities of Objective 1: Reference and Extended Reference Approaches (TD and TDE)

  •     Revise previous studies for the Initial National Communication (inventory and specific studies about carbon content);

  •     Choose the coefficients: comparison of coefficients used in the inventory with those from IPCC, identifying revision needs; survey of previous studies regarding carbon content in energy sources aiming at their use in the present phase l; compilation of the National Energy Balance data base. In this study experimental studies are not foreseen but some research institutions will be consulted;

 

Scheme 1: Emissions Calculation in the Energy Sector for the Inventory of the Second National Communication

  •    Estimate Carbon Emissions by the TDE process; survey the emissions by the TDE process at the  national level (based on the Carbon Balance methodology), incorporating the necessary revisions aiming at upgrading preliminary results regarding carbon content using this process in the energy transformation and use and calculating carbon emissions (Report 2);

  •     Organize a seminar for disseminating and discussing the TDE methodology and the results of Carbon Balance;

  •     Obtain coefficients adequate for the characteristics of the fuels used in Brazil per year using the characteristics of the energy sources that are produced, imported and exported;

  •      Estimate the emissions of greenhouse effect in the energy area by the TD Approach using BEN data and revised coefficients and present a reference report for the National Inventory using the Tier 2 Reference Approach (Report 3)

  •      Revise the transformation coefficients (secondary products formed and carbon emissions in the process) for energy sources in the country using specific studies;

  •      Calculate CO2 and carbon emissions using energy sources and coefficients data adopted by the TDE methodology with revised (transformation and emission) coefficients at the national level (Report 4);

  •      Elaborate emissions coefficients tables to be used in the units of the federation, for each year, in the calculation of the state emissions using state energy balance data.

2.4.2 Activities of Objective 2 - Sectorial Bottom-Up (BU) Approach

·         Revise sectorial studies made for the Initial Inventory. Survey of the previous studies regarding carbon content per energy source as well as critical revision and evaluation of these studies – some of them not used in the Inventory – aiming at their use in the present phase; comparison of the coefficients used in the Inventory with the default coefficients of IPCC and identification of where these specific coefficients were used;

·         Preliminary calculation of emissions by the BU process using sectorial coefficients , and using the software developed by e&e (using revised coefficients of the initial inventory), whose preliminary emission results regarding greenhouse effect gases (CO2, CO, NOX, N2O, CH4 and NMVOCs) will be the base for elaborating terms of reference for sectorial studies. (Report 1).       
(Note: Reports are numbered in the foreseen chronological presentation order)

·         Use the Useful Energy Balance to discriminate uses per energy source and per sector and identify the equipment used in each sector and type of use, looking for determining the adequate emission coefficients (non-CO2 gases) starting with values recommended by IPCC and calculating emissions by the Bottom-Up process;

·         Consolidate data of the available sectorial studies concerning emissions of greenhouse effect, checking the effect on the emission coefficients (per energy source, per sector and per use) and revising their values, whenever the case;

·         Elaborate an estimate of Bottom-Up emissions per sector, using sectorial coefficients and per energy source in order to compare the TDE results with revised coefficients, solving the eventual detected incoherence using the Carbon Balance (Report 5);

·         Consolidate the BU coefficients (per energy source and per sector) that will be used for the emissions of the units of the federation.

2.4.3 Activities of Objective 3 - Articulation and Consolidation of Specific Studies

  • Evaluate the terms of reference of the sectorial studies foreseen in the BRA/05/G31 project and propose modifications so that they will be adequate to be used in the inventory, if necessary;

In the transformation area:

    • Ethanol Production;
    • Charcoal Production;
    • Electricity Generation in Thermoelectric Plants;
    • Refineries;

·         In the utilization area:

    • Road Transport;
    • Air Transport;
  • Other areas
    • To be suggested by the evaluation of results of the preliminary calculation of emissions by the BU process, where it is expected to detect the most relevant sectors regarding the inventory and where the peculiarities of the country demand complementary studies.
    • Additional sectorial studies should be indicated by the MCT, for which a preliminary list is considered: Residential, Commercial and Public; Industrial (with emphasis  on Steelworks, Food and Beverage, Chemical Industry); Agriculture and Husbandry; Waterways and Rail Roads Transport.
    • Consolidate the results de sectorial studies to determine emission coefficients.

2.4.4 Activities of Objective 4 – Evaluation of State Emissions

  • Compile state energy balances  for two (2) years - 1990 and 2000 - , in the periods of 60 and 90 days respectively, and for each year. It will be elaborated 28 matrices (49 energy sources x 47 accounts), one for each UF and the other for Brazil, in the original units and in toe (tonne oil equivalent), using the National Energy Balance and the State Energy Balance that are available (NT1 EE1, NT2 EE);
  • Develop methodology for state emissions in order to calculate emissions using state balances and national emissions coefficients for the TDE and BU methodologies;
  • Obtain emissions of greenhouse effect gases for the UFs (Report 6), using TDE and BU (national) coefficients.

2.5. Description of products to be developed

2.5.1. Technical Notes

§         NTEE1 – Compilation of the state energy balance for the year 1990 composed of 28 matrices - 49 (energy sources) x 47 (accounts) - in original units and toe (Objective 4);

§         NTEE2 - Compilation of the state energy balance for the year 2000 composed of 28 matrices - 49 (energy sources) x 47 (accounts) - in original units and toe (Objective 5);

§         NTES1 – Elaboration or revision proposal of Terms of Reference for Sectorial Studies.

2.5.2. Reports

  •      Report 1 – Revision of Bottom-Up emissions with preliminary results for the 1990-2000 period;

  •       Report 2 - Preliminary Results for Top-Down Extended emissions;

  •      Report 3 – Reference report to subsidize the preparation of the National Inventory of greenhouse effect gases emissions from 1990 to 2000 using the Top-Down - Tier 2 approach;

  •      Report 4 – Results of the Top Down Extended Report revised at the national level;

  •      Report 5 – Reference report to subsidize the preparation of the National Inventory of greenhouse effect gases emissions from 1990 to 2000 using the Bottom-Up approach ;

  •      Report 6 – Emissions of greenhouse effect gases for the UF for the years 1990 and 2000 by the coefficients method;

  •      Final Report – Consolidation of results to subsidize the preparation of the National Inventory of Antropic Emissions of Greenhouse Effect Gases for the Energy Sector.

2.5.3. Spreadsheets of Results

Spreadsheets 1: Spreadsheets of greenhouse effect gases in the energy área by the Top-Down approach ;

Spreadsheets 2: Spreadsheets of greenhouse effect gases in the energy área by the Bottom-Up approach.

2.5.4. Especification of Products

Final Product:

Reference report subsidize the preparation of the of the greenhouse effect gases emissions inventory in the energy area using the (i) Top-Down (TD) and (ii) Bottom-Up (BU) methodologies.  

Characteristics of Reports and Technical Notes:

The partial reports will present the results in a transparent way and should contain in Annex all the basic data used and their individual sources so that they can be directly used for making the inventory. The reports will be printed and will be also presented in electronic format so that they can be edited. The methodology should be detailed and should contain all the adopted criteria that permits the reproduction of results. Each document should contain summary, introduction and conclusion. All graphics, tables and figures should have title, legend and be included in a specific summary. The document should have complete bibliographic references that were mentioned along the document and a list of all the participating staff (direct or indirect participation).

Characteristics of Spreadsheets:

The spreadsheets should present results and the explicit input data, the coefficients used, and all intermediary steps to obtain the results.

 

Graphic Edition/Edição Gráfica:
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Editoração Eletrônic
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Revised/Revisado:
Thursday, 05 May 2011
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