Economy & Energy
Year IX -No 48:
February - March 2005  
ISSN 1518-2932

seta.gif (5908 bytes)No 48 Em Português






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e&e No 48


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Coming into Force of the Kyoto Protocol

Estimation of Carbon Content in Dry Natural Gas

Carbon Balance 1970 - 2002


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Coming into Force of the Kyoto Protocol

This issue is entirely dedicated to the analysis of carbon emissions into the atmosphere that, as known, is the main cause of global warming. Coincidentally, it comes out together with the Kyoto Protocol that came into effect on February 16, 2005, aiming at controlling the Earth warming caused by the greenhouse effect.

Text for Discussion:

Estimation of Carbon Content in Dry Natural Gas Using the Difference between the High and Low Heat Values

The difference between the high and low heat values permits to estimate the water produced in the combustion process. As a consequence, one can estimate the hydrogen and carbon content in hydrocarbons. The methodology is tested on natural gas.


Carbon Balance in the Production, Transformation and Use of Energy in Brazil – Methodology and Results with the Top-Bottom Process in the period 1970 - 2002.

The Carbon Balance Project, executed by e&e NGO, aims at supplying a tool for calculating the carbon balance in the production, transformation and use of energy in Brazil and the carbon contained in the emissions of the greenhouse effect gases, and its dissemination in electronic form and in written reports. The objective is to detect – by simultaneously applying the Top-Down and Bottom-Up techniques – the possible omissions in one of the two approaches.

The final report, produced under an agreement with the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT), is concentrated on the elaboration of the methodology and diagnosis of divergences found; however it already permits to obtain reliable results for the period 1970 – 2002.

The first step is to use the Top-Down model extension on all lines of the energy balance in what might be called the Top-Bottom process whose results are presented


No 48 in adobe pdf for download

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Tuesday, 11 November 2008

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