Economy & Energy
Year VIII -No 48:
February - March 2005  
ISSN 1518-2932

seta.gif (5908 bytes)No 48 Em Português






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e&e No 48

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Coming into Force of the Kyoto Protocol

Estimation of Carbon Content in Dry Natural Gas

Carbon Balance 1970 - 2002


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Coming into Force of the Kyoto Protocol

The Protocol came into force on February 16, 2005 without the participation of the United States, that have refused to ratify it. This fact greatly limits its coverage due to the responsibility of this country regarding the present and past emissions and its role in the world leadership. It is estimated that the USA emits about 40% of the greenhouse effect gases in the industrialized countries and 21% of the world emissions; its historical contributions is still larger because the CO2 absorption in the atmosphere is very slow in that country and because it has been the leader of emissions of these gases for a long time

At the end of last year Brazil has delivered an inventory of its emissions in the period 1990-1994. The publication of this document is an important step regarding the Brazilian participation – whose energy matrix is one of the cleanest in the world – in the efforts to prevent the aggravation of global warming.

Economy & Energy – the periodical and the organization – has the pleasure to make known its participation in this effort coordinated by the Ministry of Science and Technology. Economy & Energy has also the honor of having among its collaborators some of the important participants in the international effort for establishing the Protocol.

Taking into account its minor responsibility regarding this phenomenon and its development level, Brazil is not presently obliged to control these emissions. However, the Protocol offers the possibility of participating in the world effort through measures that would reduce the world emissions using “carbon credits” from other countries that would finance this effort.

These countries would make this effort here and not in their respective territories because of economical reasons. For the same reasons, it is convenient for Brazil to pay attention to the consequences of the measures that would be adopted here.

Furthermore, the economic control by external organizations regarding our investment possibilities (even the internal ones) makes the country subject to pressures that might define the viability of new undertakings or their cost.

A serious evaluation of the economical and social impact of each one of the projects and of all of them is indispensable. For example, it is not difficult to foresee that a carbon credit operation might prevent the use of land and therefore reduce or shift food production. This might be probable whenever there would be competition between two economical activities: there would be external subsidies for the first one but not for the second one. The consequence would be reduced production or price increase of food.


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Tuesday, 11 November 2008

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