Economy & Energy
Year VIII -No 47:
December 2004  January 2005
ISSN 1518-2932

seta.gif (5908 bytes)No 47 Em Português






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e&e No 47


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Petroleum Prices: The Third Shock?

Alcohol as an International Commodity

 Promotion of solar energy for water heating in the Residential Sector

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Text for Discussion:

Petroleum Prices: The Third Shock?     

José Israel Vargas e Carlos Feu Alvim    

 The present petroleum price increase has conjuncture causes connected with the Iraq war and with political tensions in other countries. Examining the evolution of the main primary energy sources participation share in the world energy matrix,  it can be inferred that there also exist structural causes for the oil price increase.


Alcohol as an International Commodity

Luiz Celso Parisi Negrão e Maria Lucia De Paula Urban         

 The sustainable development question leads to the association of environment and development in which production and use of renewable energy has fundamental importance in environmental terms. The large scale experience of ethanol production and use in Brazil is an example that has been followed by and discussed in several countries and in international meetings. The local action, which has global impact in environmental terms, has transformed alcohol into a product of extreme importance for the fast response that the world must give in regard to the reduction of greenhouse effect gases emission. In order to consolidate this goal, it is important to transform fuel alcohol into an international environmental commodity.

 Promotion of Solar Energy for Water Heating in the Residential Sector

Omar Campos Ferreira                                                                    

The use of solar energy reduces both the cost of water heating at low temperature and the investment in electricity generation and distribution and therefore it is advantageous for the user as well as the electric energy utility. However, the initial investment in the solar equipment is larger than that corresponding to other heating modalities, inhibiting the initiative of the user to substitute the electric shower by solar heating. The apparent solution would be to combine the investment capacity of the utilities with the user’s willingness to pay.

 Repercussion of the Clube de Engenharia Seminar:
Brazilian Energy Resources :  Petroleum, Gas, Uranium and Coal

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Tuesday, 11 November 2008

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