Economy & Energy
Year VIII -No 44:
June-July 2004  
ISSN 1518-2932

seta.gif (5908 bytes)No 44 Em Português

 

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e&e No 44

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Capital Productivity:
A further Limitation for the Brazilian Growth

Simplified Methodology for Estimating the Evolution of Capital Productivity

 Nuclear Inspections and Non Proliferation:

Nuclear inspections in Brazil and the French Public Pissoir

The Non-Proliferation Nuclear Treaty NPT.

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Texts for Discussion:

Capital Productivity:
A further Limitation for the Brazilian Growth

Capital productivity evolution relative to labor is analyzed in six countries aiming at understanding the causes of stagnation –already for a quarter of a century – of the Brazilian GDP per inhabitant. The capital productivity has been falling in the last years without the corresponding increase of labor productivity – or of its proxy the per capita income. It seems (surprisingly) that capital and labor productivity behavior in Italy, Japan and Korea could be described by the simple Cobb-Douglas function (or Solow model with zero technology growth). The other analyzed countries (Chile, India and Brazil) follow very different paths but, while the two first countries seem to have found the way to growth and reducing the capital productivity loses, Brazil is not successful in increasing its GDP/inhabitant.

Simplified Methodology for Estimating the Evolution of Capital Productivity

The application of the simplified methodology for evaluating the capital productivity makes it possible the analysis of this parameters in countries for which more complete data are not available. The reliability of the simplified method application is discussed and it is then applied to six countries where the capital productivity variation was important in the last decades.

Opinions:

Nuclear Inspections and Non Proliferation

Independence of opinion is a principle among the e&e members, announced since our number zero issue and cultivated in more than seven years of the publication. The public debate involving the IAEA nuclear inspections in the Resende enrichment plant has as main participants two of the e&e members,  the Vice-Admiral Othon Pinheiro da Silva and Professor José Goldemberg. Nuclear energy is a subject relevant for the Brazilian energy and technological future that involves strategic aspects that should be examined with attention.

Nuclear inspections in Brazil and the French Public Pissoir

The adoption of a technology called jet-nozzle in the frame of the Nuclear Agreement with Germany, considered by many as economically non viable, has conducted the Vice-Admiral Othon Pinheiro da Silva, author of the present article, to propose an independent enrichment line using ultracentrifuges. In four years the first enrichment operation was carried out with centrifuges totally planned, designed and fabricated in Brazil. A little of the history of the process and the posterior application of ABACC and IAEA safeguards to the process is narrated by the author, including the use of the “French public pissoir” for protecting the technology. The consequences that new menaces of using nuclear artifacts against countries without nuclear weapons could bring to nuclear proliferations are also commented.

The Non-Proliferation Nuclear Treaty NPT.

In 2005 an international conference – that takes place every five years – will review the success and failures of the NPT. Brazil participates in a group of seven countries that organized a “New Agenda Coalition” in which our present Foreign Minister Celso Amorim was very active and endorsed the point of view that the control of nuclear weapons access by countries that do not possess them should be linked to disarmament of those countries that possess them, which would make the world less dangerous than it is now.

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Revised/Revisado:
Tuesday, 11 November 2008
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