Economy & Energy
Year VIII -No 42:
February-March 2004  
ISSN 1518-2932

seta.gif (5908 bytes)No 42 Em Português






other e&e issues

e&e No 42

Main Page

Distribution of the Hydraulic Potential in a Hydrographic Basin

Sustainable Development


Capital Productivity in Brazil from 1950 to 2000

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Seven Years of e&e and Capital Productivity

Capital Productivity and its influence on the Brazilian economic growth has been a constant theme of e&e. Actually the theme was already a highlight in its Number Zero Issue.

In the book Brasil: O Crescimento Possível, whose authors were the core of  the   regular collaborators of our periodical, the sharp capital productivity in Brazil was pointed out as one of the hindrances  to our development.

With the present No 42 issue we are entering the eighth year of e&e at the Internet. In this issue we are glad to make available the University of Brasilia Ph D thesis of our collaborator Aumara Feu in which she consolidates the analysis of the subject in what concerns Brazil in the world context perspective and opens important theoretical questions. She emphasizes as well the practical importance of acting on economical parameters so that Brazil can resume growth.

We have called attention to the fact that excessive emphasis has been given to  labor productivity vis-à-vis capital productivity which is par excellence the scarce factor in our country.

The product per worker is almost obligatorily associated with the per capita income. Otherwise we would have most of the potentially active population out of the productive system. If it makes sense to seek  larger labor productivity from the microeconomic point of view, from the macroeconomic one this makes sense only if the economic growth can compensate the growth of the potentially active population and the labor productivity gain.

 In the present issue our collaborator João Antonio Moreira Patusco writes about some aspects of a subject most relevant to the Brazilian development, namely the investment/generated jobs ratio. Likewise, from the macroeconomic point of view we must calculate , besides the direct jobs, the creation of upstream (undertaking construction) and downstream jobs (e.g., energy availability, in order to permit economic growth and jobs generation) of each investment. Whenever there is the possibility, as in the case mentioned by Patusco, of an option between two equivalent fuels, the downstream jobs can be neglected. If a country insists on allocating its capital only in activities that generate a small number of jobs, the global result will be not much different. Incidentally, one of the interesting results of Aumara’s work is that 74% of the productivity decrease in Brazil is connected with the structure effect, that is, the larger growth in this period of the capital-intensive sectors.

The result of inconsistent macroeconomic policies and unemployment are the object of reflections of our collaborator Genserico Encarnação Jr.

Our issue is ended with an article by Omar Campos Ferreira about the use of the entropy concept for interpreting the hydraulic potential of a basin. A significant potential of small hydroelectric power plants is a result of this evaluation. The use of thermodynamics concepts in other knowledge areas besides Physics is another constant of our periodical.


Sustainable Development



Distribution of the Hydraulic Potential in a Hydrographic Basin


Capital Productivity in Brazil from 1950 to 2000


Power Point Presentation (only in Portuguese)

Full text in pdf (only in Portuguese)


Equivalent Energy and National Energy Balance Data 1970 / 2002 with 49 energy sources and 46 sectors

BEN 49 X 46: User’s Manual  Word Version
 Equivalent Energy and National Energy Balance – Excel Spreadsheets Generator

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