Economy & Energy
No 41: December 2003 - January 2004
ISSN 1518-2932

seta.gif (5908 bytes)No 41 Em Português

 

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e&e No 41

Main Page

Opinion:

Inflation

Text for Discussion:

What affects the Brazilian Exports?

Article:

Energy Emissions – Brazil 1970/2002

Definitions and  Data:

Some Indexes of the Brazilian Inflation

Indexes of the American Inflation

 

http://ecen.com

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Energy Emissions – Brazil 1970/2002

Summary.

1. Results

1.1 Global Results

1.2 Emissions in Year 2002.

1.2.1 Emissions by Sector

1.2.2 Emissions by Activity and in Transformation.

1.3 Emissions by Energy Source.

1.3.1 Evolution of Emissions by Sector

1.3.2: Evolution of Emissions by Activity.

1.4 Evolution of Emissions by Energy Source in the 1970/2002 Period 

1.4.1 Emissions by Primary Energy of Origin.

1.4.2 Emissions by Energy Source.

2 The benemis_e Program.

2.1 Program’s Content

2.2 The Coefficients

 

Agreements MCT (Brazilian Science and Technology Ministry)/
Economy and Energy – NGO 01.0065.00/2003 and No  01.0077/2002

 

Projects: Estimate of greenhouse effect gases emissions from fossil fuel combustion in Brazil
and Carbon Balance

 

 Energy Sources Emissions`1970/2002

 

 MCT team:

Supervisior: José Domingos Gonzalez Miguez

Technical staff:

Branca Bastos Americano

 Newton Paciornik

 e&e team:                  

Coordinator: Carlos Feu Alvim

Technical staff:

Carlos Feu Alvim

Frida Eidelman

Omar Campos Ferreira

 

 Summary.

1. Results

1.1 Global Results

1.2 Emissions in Year 2002.

1.2.1 Emissions by Sector

1.2.2 Emissions by Activity and in Transformation.

1.3 Emissions by Energy Source.

1.3.1 Evolution of Emissions by Sector

1.3.2: Evolution of Emissions by Activity.

1.4 Evolution of Emissions by Energy Source in the 1970/2002 Period 

1.4.1 Emissions by Primary Energy of Origin.

1.4.2 Emissions by Energy Source.

2 The benemis_e Program.

2.1 Program’s Content

2.2 The Coefficients

 

Summary

Emissions from the use and transformation of energy represent in most countries the most important share of the total greenhouse effect gases that contribute to the global warming.

The emissions of greenhouse gases from energy use and transformation in Brazil in the period 1970/2002 were estimated. Emissions of the following gases are presented: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs).

Emissions were calculated through the benemis-e program developed by Economy & Energy – NGO, for the Ministry of Science and Technology. The program uses data from the National Energy Balance –BEN, and emission coefficients supplied by the staff that elaborates the Brazilian inventory of the greenhouse effect gases.

Tables and graphics of the following results are presented:

            · Global results

            · Emissions in year 2002

            · Evolution of emissions by sector and activity in the1970/2002 period

            · Evolution of emissions by energy source in the 1970/2002 period.

1. Results

1.1 Global Results

The emissions of the main considered gases are presented in Table 1.1. Besides the results of the program, data relative to population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) were also included in the Table.

 

Table 1.1. Emissions of greenhouse effect gases, associated with the use of energy in selected years (Emissions Brazil: 1970/2002

 

Unit

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2002

CO2

1000 Gg/year

221,2

282,6

334,5

363,0

374,9

422,3

480,2

507,1

CO2 *

1000 Gg/year

79,5

133,9

176,4

168,6

194,3

244,3

302,5

315,0

CH4

1000 Gg/year

0,27

0,32

0,33

0,36

0,33

0,27

0,27

0,28

N2O

1000 Gg/year

0,006

0,007

0,007

0,008

0,008

0,009

0,009

0,010

NOx

1000 Gg/year

0,6

1,0

1,2

1,3

1,4

1,7

2,1

2,2

CO

1000 Gg/year

14,9

17,3

15,6

14,0

13,9

12,6

13,4

13,9

CO *

1000 Gg/year

4,5

6,9

5,7

4,2

5,2

4,9

5,9

6,0

NMVOCs

1000 Gg/year

1,1

1,4

1,3

1,3

1,3

1,2

1,3

1,3

C

1000 Gg/year

67,8

85,9

99,2

106,3

109,5

121,7

137,9

145,5

C*

1000 Gg/year

24,7

40,9

51,9

49,1

56,5

69,9

86,3

89,7

Inhabitants

million

94,5

107,0

120,0

133,1

146,1

158,8

171,0

175,6

GDP

GDP(80)=100

43,6

67,5

100,0

113,7

123,6

143,8

160,8

165,7

GDP

US$bi(2000)

161,3

249,6

369,6

420,2

456,8

531,4

594,2

612,4

C*/US$ 

kg/US$

0,153

0,164

0,140

0,117

0,124

0,132

0,145

0,147

C*/inhab

t/inhab.year

0,262

0,382

0,432

0,369

0,387

0,440

0,505

0,511

CO2*/US$

kg/US$

0,493

0,537

0,477

0,401

0,425

0,460

0,509

0,514

CO2*/inhabit

t/inhab.year

0,842

1,251

1,470

1,266

1,330

1,538

1,770

1,794

(*) Emissions excluding biomass                                                                 

In Table 1.1 are presented emissions of all gases considered in the program as well as data for carbon dioxide without biomass emission (CO2*), according to IPCC recommendation, and data with biomass emission (CO2). It is also presented data relative to CO that could be subject to the same restriction, since in a few years CO is converted to CO2 and therefore its effect when originated from biomass is nullified (absorbed=emitted). For the other carbon compounds (CH4 and NMVOCs) the dynamics is more complex, even though, in the long term, the resulting CO2 is null when originated from renewed biomass. As a global measure of these emissions one can use the total carbon. In the table are presented the carbon emissions from renewable fuels and the total emission.

In Table 1.2 are given the growth rate values of the parameters presented in the previous table in the considered years.

Table 1.2. Annual growth rate of parameters corresponding to the emissions of greenhouse effect gases associated with energy use and transformation for the selected period (Emissions Brazil: 1970/2001).

 

1970/75

1975/80

1980/85

1985/90

1990/95

1995/
2000

2000/
2002

CO2

5,0%

3,4%

1,6%

0,7%

2,4%

2,6%

2,8%

CO2 *

11,0%

5,7%

-0,9%

2,9%

4,7%

4,4%

2,0%

CH4

3,6%

0,4%

1,8%

-1,6%

-3,8%

-0,4%

2,2%

N2O

1,5%

1,1%

2,6%

-1,1%

2,1%

1,2%

4,4%

NOx

9,8%

4,6%

0,9%

2,0%

3,3%

4,8%

2,5%

CO

3,0%

-2,1%

-2,1%

-0,2%

-2,0%

1,4%

1,8%

CO *

8,9%

-3,6%

-6,0%

4,1%

-1,0%

3,9%

0,6%

NMVOCs

4,6%

-1,3%

-1,0%

0,6%

-1,8%

1,2%

0,6%

C

4,8%

2,9%

1,4%

0,6%

2,1%

2,5%

2,7%

C*

10,6%

4,9%

-1,1%

2,9%

4,3%

4,3%

2,0%

Inhabitants

2,5%

2,3%

2,1%

1,9%

1,7%

1,5%

1,3%

GDP

9,1%

8,2%

2,6%

1,7%

3,1%

2,3%

1,5%

C*/US$ 

9,1%

8,2%

2,6%

1,7%

3,1%

2,3%

1,5%

C*/inhab

1,3%

-3,0%

-3,6%

1,2%

1,2%

2,0%

0,5%

CO2*/US$

7,8%

2,5%

-3,1%

1,0%

2,6%

2,8%

0,6%

CO2*/inhabit

1,7%

-2,3%

-3,4%

1,2%

1,6%

2,1%

0,5%

(*) Emissions excluding biomass                                                                         

In Figures 1.1 e 1.2 are shown emission data in linear and logarithmic scales.

Figure 1.1: Emissions of greenhouse effect gases, where the scale on the right represents CO2 emissions. The values signaled with* correspond to emissions without contribution from biomass.

Figure 1.2: Emissions of greenhouse effect gases in logarithmic scale where the values signaled with * correspond to emissions with no contribution from biomass.

Figure 1.3: CO2 emissions by dollar (2000 values) and by inhabitant in the 1970/2002 period

Figure 1.4: Carbon emissions (carbon contained in the greenhouse emissions) by dollar (values of 2000) and by inhabitant in the 1970/2001 period.

Figures 1.3 and 1.4 show emissions of CO2* and C* (values without considering emissions from biomass) by inhabitant and by unit of GDP. It can be observed that due to the rise of petroleum prices between 1973 and 1986, there has been a decrease of about 20% in emissions by each dollar of the GDP. The previous values were resumed in the last years. The 1977 emission level by inhabitant was reached only 20 years after.

As shown in Figure 1.4, the carbon emissions by dollar (of the GDP) in Brazil has not exceeded the 1980 values yet. This fact is fundamentally due to the programs of biomass use developed after the petroleum price crisis in 1973 and 1979 (mainly fuel alcohol) and lately due to the more intense use of natural gas.

1.2 Emissions in Year 2002

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Graphic Edition/Edição Gráfica:
MAK
Editoração Eletrônic
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Revised/Revisado:
Tuesday, 11 November 2008
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