Text for Discussion:
Definitions and Data:
Energy Emissions – Brazil 1970/2002
MCT (Brazilian Science and Technology Ministry)/
Projects: Estimate of greenhouse effect gases emissions from fossil fuel
combustion in Brazil
Energy Sources Emissions`1970/2002
Supervisior: José Domingos Gonzalez Miguez
Branca Bastos Americano
Coordinator: Carlos Feu Alvim
Carlos Feu Alvim
Omar Campos Ferreira
Emissions from the use and transformation of energy represent in most countries the most important share of the total greenhouse effect gases that contribute to the global warming.
The emissions of greenhouse gases from energy use and transformation in Brazil in the period 1970/2002 were estimated. Emissions of the following gases are presented: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs).
Emissions were calculated through the benemis-e program developed by Economy & Energy – NGO, for the Ministry of Science and Technology. The program uses data from the National Energy Balance –BEN, and emission coefficients supplied by the staff that elaborates the Brazilian inventory of the greenhouse effect gases.
Tables and graphics of the following results are presented:
· Global results
· Emissions in year 2002
· Evolution of emissions by sector and activity in the1970/2002 period
· Evolution of emissions by energy source in the 1970/2002 period.
The emissions of the main considered gases are presented in Table 1.1. Besides the results of the program, data relative to population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) were also included in the Table.
Table 1.1. Emissions of greenhouse effect gases, associated with the use of energy in selected years (Emissions Brazil: 1970/2002
(*) Emissions excluding biomass
In Table 1.1 are presented emissions of all gases considered in the program as well as data for carbon dioxide without biomass emission (CO2*), according to IPCC recommendation, and data with biomass emission (CO2). It is also presented data relative to CO that could be subject to the same restriction, since in a few years CO is converted to CO2 and therefore its effect when originated from biomass is nullified (absorbed=emitted). For the other carbon compounds (CH4 and NMVOCs) the dynamics is more complex, even though, in the long term, the resulting CO2 is null when originated from renewed biomass. As a global measure of these emissions one can use the total carbon. In the table are presented the carbon emissions from renewable fuels and the total emission.
In Table 1.2 are given the growth rate values of the parameters presented in the previous table in the considered years.
Table 1.2. Annual growth rate of parameters corresponding to the emissions of greenhouse effect gases associated with energy use and transformation for the selected period (Emissions Brazil: 1970/2001).
(*) Emissions excluding biomass
In Figures 1.1 e 1.2 are shown emission data in linear and logarithmic scales.
Figure 1.1: Emissions of greenhouse effect gases, where the scale on the right represents CO2 emissions. The values signaled with* correspond to emissions without contribution from biomass.
Figure 1.2: Emissions of greenhouse effect gases in logarithmic scale where the values signaled with * correspond to emissions with no contribution from biomass.
Figure 1.3: CO2 emissions by dollar (2000 values) and by inhabitant in the 1970/2002 period
Figure 1.4: Carbon emissions (carbon contained in the greenhouse emissions) by dollar (values of 2000) and by inhabitant in the 1970/2001 period.
Figures 1.3 and 1.4 show emissions of CO2* and C* (values without considering emissions from biomass) by inhabitant and by unit of GDP. It can be observed that due to the rise of petroleum prices between 1973 and 1986, there has been a decrease of about 20% in emissions by each dollar of the GDP. The previous values were resumed in the last years. The 1977 emission level by inhabitant was reached only 20 years after.
As shown in Figure 1.4, the carbon emissions by dollar (of the GDP) in Brazil has not exceeded the 1980 values yet. This fact is fundamentally due to the programs of biomass use developed after the petroleum price crisis in 1973 and 1979 (mainly fuel alcohol) and lately due to the more intense use of natural gas.
Graphic Edition/Edição Gráfica:
Tuesday, 11 November 2008.