Economy & Energy
No 40: October - November 2003 
ISSN 1518-2932

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Brazilian  Energy  Analysis  - 1970 to 2002 period

Equivalent Energy and BEB 49 X 46:
User's Manual

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Equivalent Energy and BEB 49 X 46:
 User’s Manual


The program is in the form of zipped Excel spreadsheets at the Internet in the site from where it can be downloaded. In the case of CD it can be directly run or transferred to any directory. If the properties of the program installed in the directory show “only reading” modify this characteristic in order to be able to save user’s configurations. To operate the program the macros must be activated.

On the Cover

Equivalent Energy and BEN 49 X 46 is a bi-lingual (Portuguese and English) program written in Visual Basic for Excel (Microsoft) to build tables from the consolidated energy balance of the Brazilian Energy Balance – BEB 2003 of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, base year 2002. Using an equivalence table, data for each energy source and each sector are converted to equivalent energy considering the relative efficiency of the several uses of each sector. The tables are built according to the user’s needs and relate accounts and energy sources. The data include the period 1979/2001


On the main spreadsheet BEB 49 X 46

At the top of the program’s cover one can choose the desired language (To English or Em Português). In order to go to the main spreadsheet, click on “49 Energy Sources x 46 Accounts Structure”.


The program is self-explanatory and the main spreadsheet has three windows:


·          The first window (in the middle) refers to the desired year (from 1970 to 2001). When the year is changed data for the corresponding year are presented.

·          The second window (at the right) refers to the unit in which the data are presented and has the following possibilities:


1) New toe – values are calculated in toe using the equivalence 1 toe = 10,000 Mcal and 1 kWh=860 kcal=0.086 toe and the equivalences among the various energy sources are based on the LHV (low heating value)

2) Old toe – values are calculated in toe using the equivalence 1 toe = 10800 Mcal and 1 kWh equivalent to 3132 kcal = 0,29 toe and the equivalences among the various energy sources are based on the GHV (gross heating value)

3) boe/d –values are calculated in barrels oil equivalent (1 barrel =159 liters) and the equivalences use the LHV (low heating value)

4) Natural units–values are presented in the units supplied to BEB (t, m3, etc.)

5) LHV – values are expressed in Tcal/year using the low heating value[1]

6) GHV – values are expressed in Tcal/year using the gross heating value.

7) Equivalent Energy –values are expressed in toe of natural gas equivalent. The equivalence uses values of the efficiency relative to natural gas in the different uses and in the different consuming sectors.


·          The third window (left) refers to the type of table and has the following possibilities:


1.       BEB Annual Structure

2.       Complete (49X46)

3.       Primary E. Supply

4.       Transformation

5.       Summary

6.       Main Sectors

7.       Min. Coal and Prod.

8.       Petroleum GN and Products

9.       Ad hoc table

10.    T ah1 Nome/Name1

11.    T ah2 Nome/Name2

12.    T ah3 Nome/Name3

13.    T ah4 Nome/Name4

14.    T ah5 Nome/Name5


In option 1 the Annex of Annual (F) BEB as it is presently published is shown. In option 2 the complete table of 46 accounts and 49 energy sources is shown. Several subtotals and aggregations are also shown. The following options show some of the possible aggregations or subtotals. Option 9 creates tables according to the user’s wish and he can choose from the list of accounts and energy sources (and aggregations). The tables that follow (10 to 14) can be defined according to the user’s preference and he can determine their names and content.

On the Tab_ad_hoc spreadsheet

When option 9 is chosen it is opened a spreadsheet that allows for the choice of the user. In order to build an ad hoc Table the user must choose in the screen shown below the desired energy source (s) and the account (s).

In the previous figure the first column lists the accounts (that will be listed in the vertical axis of the ad hoc Table) the second column lists the energy sources (that will be listed in the horizontal axis of the ad hoc Table) and the third and fourth columns present the accounts and energy sources chosen by the user. In order to include accounts and energy sources one can use the controls above the table. The rolling and option boxes have respectively the purpose of shifting the cursor in the column and make the choice. In the previous figure the control pointed out to “Exports” (position marked in the activated cell) and the choice was made in the option box that is at its side. If the option “Verify Table” is activated like it is shown at the right the list of chosen variables will be remade each time it is modified. If deactivated the list will be made only when the box is activated.

The choice of variables can also be made manually; for this purpose type x on the corresponding square to include and click on Del to exclude. Once the accounts and energy sources are chosen click on Verify Table.

In order to build the table with the chosen data click on Construct ad hoc Table.

In the example above the Production, Imports, Total Supply, Exports, Gross Domestic Supply and Final Consumption were the chosen accounts whereas Petroleum, Natural Gas, Mineral Coal, Uranium (U238), Charcoal, Ethyl Alcohol and Electricity were the chosen energy sources. Even though it is optional, one should include the first items (energy source, units in the first column and account in the second one). They permit to write the name of the variables.

If desired the table can be saved in one of the five spreadsheets reserved for this purpose. The choice is made by the control shown in the right (option shown is T ah5). The chosen name can be written in the N1 cell (in the case the generic name Nome/Name5). Clicking on “Save” the name and structure are saved and the name of the new table will be added to the options of the main spreadsheet.

The energy sources and the accounts listed in blue are those listed in the Consolidated Energy Balance of BEB whereas those listed in black are either a subdivision of the energy source above them or energy sources that were added to the list of the Consolidated Balance.

In order to ease the choice of the table one can click on the boxes indicated by the arrow and choose or delete all the cells of the column below.

Click on “Calculate” - shown on the top right of the main spreadsheet - whenever necessary. The control “Construct ad hoc Table opens the corresponding spreadsheet.

Please send any eventual suggestion to the e-mail, mentioning the subject.

[1] When a fuel is burned in oxygen and water is one of the combustion products, the adiabatic flame temperature is high enough that the water is in the vapor phase. In many heat exchangers the final temperature of the combustion products (their exit temperature from the heat exchanger) is still higher than the boiling point of water and the heat of transformation of the vapor is lost to the atmosphere. This reduces the "heating value" of the fuel to its "Low Heating Value" If the water vapor created in the combustion reaction is condensed, the heat of transformation (condensation) can be recovered and the energy obtained from the combustion process is increased. These conditions yield the "High Heating Value" of the fuel.

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Tuesday, 11 November 2008

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