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Economy & Energy
No 36:  Decemberr 2002  January 2003 ISSN 1518-2932

seta.gif (5908 bytes)No 36 Em Português






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e&e No 37

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Commercial Dollar Exchange Rate

Energy Emissions:

1 The benemis_e Program

2. Results

Annex1. Using the Program

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Energy Emissions

Carlos Feu Alvim 
Frida Eidelmaman
Omar Campos Ferreira


1 The benemis_e Program

            1.1 Program content

            1.2 The Coefficients


The present work collects data from the National Energy BalanceBEN, from 1970 to 2001 in a program denominated benemis_e in the Visual-Basic language on Excel spreadsheets that permits the production of graphics and tables in different presentations, namely by year, by sector or by energy source.

The benemis_e program, described in item 1, uses annual spreadsheets from BEN, denominated Annexes, that consolidate for each year balances balances of the production, transformation and use regarding energy in Brazil, as well as emissions coefficients supplied by Branca Americano[i] from the staff that elaborates the Brazilian inventory of the greenhouse effect gases. These coefficients are based on international recommendations and on data gathered in Brazil and consider, whenever available, the Brazilian peculiarities regarding the production and transformation of energy sources between 1990 and 1997. The coefficients relative to 1990 and 1997 are used respectively for the years before and after the considered period. The energy source data are those from BEN/MME from 1970 to 2002[ii].

The main results relative to gas emissions are presented in item 2 for the last year available (2001). Emissions are presented for the following gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and other non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs).

Graphics and tables relative to the evolution of emissions of the same gases in the period 1970/2001 by sector and by energy source group are also presented Graphics and tables of CO2 emissions by activity and sector are presented as well.

1 The benemis_e Program

1.1 Program's Content

The Annexes of BEN are stored in the program in spreadsheets for each year. In these spreadsheets the following data are presented for primary and secondary energy sources (columns), corresponding to energy sources in “accounts”:

Data concerning Gross Primary Energy Supply: Production, Imports, Exports, Stock Variation, etc.

Transformation data by type of installation: Refinery, Natural Gas Plants, Electric Power Plants, etc.

Data concerning consumption: Non-energy and Energy consumption by Economic Sectors and some of its activities

Losses and Adjustments

Figure 1.1 illustrates the adopted scheme where we refer to
accounts as sectors, for easy understanding.

Figure 1.1:
Data from BEN/MME (Annexes) for the available years are used to construct a three-dimensional matrix (energy sources, account or sector and year). The bi-dimensional output is obtained from the original matrix.


The energy values are expressed in ton oil equivalent (toe). The coefficients are presented in tons of gas by toe or equivalent. Emissions are given in 10^3 t/year. The scheme of Figure 1.2 illustrates the adopted methodology.

The way of using the program is indicated in Annex 1.

1.2 The Coefficients

The archives supplied by the MCT gather spreadsheets containing the implicit emission factors of the greenhouse effect gases relative to the energy sector, corresponding to the energy consumption in some transformation sectors and the final energy consumption of the National Energy Balance (BEN).

The emission factors of the following gases are presented: CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs).

The emission factors were calculated using the methodology adopted by the Brazilian Inventory of Greenhouse Effect Gases, namely, the Bottom-Up methodology recommended by the 1996 Revised IPCC Guidelines[iii] , developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and adapted to the Brazilian reality. Information from the Energy Balance Information System (SIBE) and the Useful Energy Balance (BEU) were used in its application in order to disaggregate information from BEN. In most of the cases values of different parameters proposed by the IPCC were used. The main exceptions were the conversion factors from toe to Terajoule, the CO2 emission factor of firewood that is consumed in charcoal plants and the emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4 e NOX from ethanol consumed in the transport sector.

The implicit emission factors can vary from year to year since many of them are calculated using more disaggregated information than those presented in the consolidated spreadsheets of BEN.

The presentation format corresponds exactly to the format of the spreadsheets of the National Energy Balance Annex, the Consolidated Balance.


Figure 1.2 : Methodology for obtaining emission data used for building tables and graphics.

[i] Branca Americano -Internal Communication.

[ii] National Energy Balance- BEN 2002,  Base Year 2001, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Secretariat of Energy.

[iii] Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.


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Tuesday, 11 November 2008

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