|Economy & Energy
Year I - No 5
Biomass and Eletric Generation
Brazilian International Reserves
Energy: Social and Economical Aspects
Tuesday, 22 July 2003
BIOMASSA FOR COMBUSTION
At the start of the forties, biomass was
responsible for about 83% of the Brazilian Internal Energy Offer- IEO, of which 81% corresponded to wood and 2% to sugar
cane bagasse . Due to the growing use of petroleum products, together with
hydroelectricity expansion, biomass contribution decreased decade after decade.
INTERNAL ENERGY OFFER - %
Of the total biomass offer of 47 million tep in 1996, only 1.2
million (2.5%) were used in electric power generation. The details of this generation are
shown in the following topic.
BIOMAS IN ELECTRIC
According to data from the 1997 National Energy Balance, the electricity self production in 1996 was 16 TWh ( 3.9 hydro and 12.1 thermo), corresponding to 5.5% of the total generation in the country (290 TWh) and 12% of the industrial electricity consumption.
The following table shows that the sugar- alcohol industry produces about 80% of the electricity it consumes, followed by the petroleum sector, generating 54% of its needs and paper and cellulose, with 40%.
PRODUCTION OF SOME PRODUCTS
A study made about the potential surpluses of self generation in the sugar-alcohol sector (Walter, 1996), based on the present volume of crushed sugar cane (about 284 million of tons) presents the values of 6.4 TWh (vapor turbines of 21 bar in the grinders and 62 bar in the turbo generators) and 25.7 TWh ( VAPOR VIVO of 80 bar and turbines with double extraction and condensation). These data indicate technical potential that do not take into account any economical viability assessment.
The referred surpluses correspond to 0.8 and 3.1 GW of installed capacity, that is, approximately between 1.3 and 5.1% of the present Brazilian installed generation capacity (60.8 GW) and between 23 to 89% of the present installed capacity of the self producers (3.5 GW).
This potential surpluses has been evaluated by some electric power utilities such as Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz - CPFL, in whose distribution area is located most of the sugar and alcohol plants in São Paulo state. The expansion of the cogeneration systems in the CPFL area will add 180 MW from the sugar-alcohol sector until 1999.
In the cellulose sector, according to studies by Carpentieri, 1995, it is estimated a potential surplus of 1 GW in the medium term ( considering the expansion plans of the sector)
ELETROBRAS together with CHEF has been developing the WBP/SIGAME Project,
aiming at demonstrating the technical and economical viability of using biomass as a fuel
in gasification systems associated with a combined cycle of electricity generation.